Accumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances in lysimeter-grown rice in Japan using tap water and simulated contaminated water
By Eriko Yamazaki, Sachi Taniyasu, Kosuke Noborio, Heesoo Eun, Pooja Thaker, Nirmal J. I. Kumar, Xinhong Wang, and Nobuyoshi Yamashita
July 8, 2019
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of contaminants of concern in agricultural crops, but little is known of their accumulation or behavior in grains. We grew Japanese rice (Oryza sativa subsp. indica) in lysimeters irrigated with tap water or tap water plus simulated contaminated water for 2 years, then analyzed the roots, straw, unhulled rice, white rice, bran, soil, and water for PFASs residues. Total fluorine was measured by combustion ion chromatography. Estimated per-plant residue levels were 3.0 pg perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) (bran: 0.5%, hull: 99.5%), 0.54 pg N-ethylperfluorooctanesulfonamide (N-EtFOSA) (white rice: 67%, hull: 33%), 1.2 pg perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (white rice: 13%, bran: 7%, hull: 79%), 0.68 pg perfluoropentanoic acid (hull: 100%), 0.50 pg perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) (white rice: 65%, bran: 16%, hull: 19%), 0.21 pg perfluoroheptanoic acid (hull: 100%), 0.25 pg perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (hull: 100%), and 0.12 pg perfluorodecanoic acid (PFNA) (white rice: 81%, bran: 19%). Estimated daily PFASs intakes were <1-3 ng perfluorooctanesulfonamide, <1-7 ng N-EtFOSA, 1-2 ng PFBA, <3-4 ng PFHxA, and 1-2 ng PFNA. Estimated PFOS, PFOA, and total PFASs in straw feed were 0.4, 0.1, and 2 kg yr-1 and 0.7, 0.4, and 8 kg yr-1 in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Estimated PFOS, PFOA, and total PFASs in straw fertilizer were 4, 1, and 23 kg yr-1 and 7, 4, and 86 kg yr-1 in 2015 and 2016, respectively. PFASs accumulation may cause longer residence time in agricultural systems owing to straw being used as animal feed and organic fertilizer.