Analysis of hexafluoropropylene oxide-dimer acid (HFPO-DA) by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS): Review of Current Approaches and Environmental Levels

By Lauren Mullin, David Katz, Nicole Riddell, Robert Plumb, Jennifer A. Burgess, Leo W. Y. Yeung, and Ingrid Ericson Jogsten
Trends Analyt. Chem.
September 16, 2019
DOI: 10.1016/j.trac.2019.05.015


Emerging per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFAS) compounds are of increasing interest for environmental monitoring, one being hexafluoropropylene oxide-dimer acid (HFPO-DA), commonly referred to as GenX. The following review describes existing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods used to analyze HFPO-DA, including sample preparation and method sensitivity relative to other PFAS. Analytical challenges are also described, in particular the significant formation of in-source fragmentation, dimer and dimer adducts which detract from [M-H]- signal. Lastly, detected levels of HFPO-DA in environmental and biological samples are compared across the limited number of available field exposure studies, which found several μg/L concentrations in water samples taken near fluorochemical plant discharges.

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