In situ soil flushing to remediate confined soil contaminated with PFOS- an innovative solution for emerging environmental issue
By Senevirathna, Reza Mahinroosta, Miao Li, and Karthika Krishna Pillai
August 25, 2020
PerFluoroOctane Sulfonate (PFOS), is a toxic anthropogenic chemical that has been produced and gradually released into the environment for the past seven decades. An accurate audit of global PFOS contamination and contaminated sites are yet to be published. The available technologies to remediate PFOS contaminated soil are limited and often basic strategies such as temporary soil containment are adopted as immediate measures to manage the contaminated sites. In this study, the in situ soil flushing technique is assessed for its capacity to remediate soil contaminated with PFOS. A complete treatment process with several operation units was proposed such as solvent flushing, ground water pumping, solvent recovery and water treatment for PFOS. Potential solvents were identified and it was observed that more than 98% PFOS removal could be attained by flushing with five bed volumes of 50% ethanol. In addition, the study investigated thirteen commercially available filter materials and identified PFA694E, K6362, MP 62, Amberlite IRA 67 and Dowexoptopore V493 as suitable to eliminate PFOS with competitive PFOS adsorption characteristics. The proposed method can be recommended to remediate PFOS in recognised contaminated soils, such as those at defence sites. Furthermore, a contaminated site with favourable characteristics to implement the suggested method was identified in Australia and described in this paper.