Occurrence of Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Ice Cream, Instant Noodles, and Bubble Tea

By Zhenzhen Huang, Xin Zhang, Xin Wang, Zhuoma Deji, and Hian Kee Lee
J. Agric. Food Chem.
August 23, 2022
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.2c01434

Food consumption is a significant exposure route to perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). The concentrations of 27 PFAS in fast food were determined by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry. In ice cream, instant noodles, and bubble tea, some PFAS were detected, among which perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluoro-n-butanoic acid, and 6:2 polyfluoroalkyl phosphate monoester showed relatively high concentrations. PFAS migrating from bubble tea cups to the food simulant of 50% ethanol aqueous solution showed a difference compared with those migrating into bubble tea matrices. The migration of 27 PFAS to bubble tea samples indicated that long storage time increased PFAS levels (up to 4.8 times) and so did high storage temperature (up to 7.3 times). The hazard ratio, defined as the ratio of the estimated daily intake and the reference dose, was calculated, and it suggests that the total PFAS exposure risk due to consumption of bubble tea should be of concern.


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