Per/polyfluoroalkyl substances production, applications and environmental impacts

By Dhore, Raveena, and Ganti S. Murthy
Bioresource Tech.
August 31, 2021
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125808

The per/polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are growing contaminants which are extremely difficult to get degraded naturally. PFAS have been produced for nearly a century using electrochemical flourination and more relomerization processes. High chemical resistance, hydrophobicity, lipophobicity, heat resistace, extremly low friction coefficient make this class of chemicals invaluable for many applications. These same properties useful unfortunately make them 'forever chemicals' once released into the envrironment. This review focuses on the production and applications of PFAs, determining the concentration of PFAs in environmental and biological matrices and their efficient degradation. Various methods of detection of PFAS have been developed but insitu methods of detction are still in the early stages of development. Current chemical and biological remediation technologies are expensive/not effective and thus new remediation technolgies must be developed. It is imperative to focus on methods for detection of the short chain PFAS with their projected increased use.


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