Probing Mechanisms for the Tissue-Specific Distribution and Biotransformation of Perfluoroalkyl Phosphinic Acids in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)
By Liu, Menglin, Fengfeng Dong, Shujun Yi, Yumin Zhu, Jian Zhou, Binbin Sun, Guo-Qiang Shan, Jianfeng Feng, and Lingyan Zhu
Environ. Sci. & Tech.
April 1, 2020
This study investigated the tissue-specific accumulation and biotransformation of 6:6 and 8:8 perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids (PFPiA) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during 90 d exposure and 30 d depuration in water in the laboratory. Both 6:6 and 8:8 PFPiAs could quickly accumulate in the carp, and 6:6 PFPiA displayed higher bioaccumulation potential than 8:8 PFPiA. The highest concentrations of PFPiAs were observed in the blood, while the lowest were found in the muscle. The equilibrium dialysis experiment indicated that both PFPiAs had higher binding affinities with the proteins in the fish serum than in liver, which was supported by the molecular docking analysis. The results also indicated that 6:6 PFPiA had higher binding affinities with the serum and liver proteins than 8:8 PFPiA. These results suggested that the tissue specific distribution of PFPiAs was highly dependent on the binding affinities with the specific proteins. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments consistently indicated that PFPiAs experienced biotransformation and produced perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids (PFPAs), and biotransformation of 8:8 PFPiA was more active than 6:6 PFPiA. It was worth noting that perfluorohexanonate and perfluorooctanoic acids were identified in fish as metabolites after long-term exposure to PFPiAs for the first time.