Treatment train approaches for the remediation of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS): A critical review
By Dingnan Lu, Sha Sha, Jiayue Luo, Zhuangrong Huang, and Xiaoqi Zhang Jackie
J Haz. Mat.
January 7, 2020
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have recently drawn great attention due to their ubiquitous presence in aquatic environments and potential toxicity to human health and the environment. A number of recent studies have demonstrated that "passive" removal approaches, such as adsorption, filtration, and reverse osmosis or "active" degradation technologies, such as enhanced photolysis, electrochemical oxidation, and sonochemical destruction, are all able to individually conduct remedial measures for PFAS contamination at some level. However, drawbacks, specifically high energy consumption, low cost-efficiency, and extreme operating conditions, are commonly observed from these studies which significantly suppress the future for commercialization of these innovative technologies. Since 2015, a new trend of PFAS remediation has emerged that uses multiple synergetic technologies simultaneously (known as treatment train processes) to effectively achieve in-situ remediation of PFAS. This paper provides new insight of the recently reported treatment train studies selected from approximately 150 different publications with regards to the remediation of PFAS and discusses their innovative designs, remediation performances, present limits, and possible improvements. Based on a comprehensive review of the current treatment train studies, this review work proposes a new design that consists of three individual technologies, namely, nanofiltration, electrochemical anodic oxidation, and electro-Fenton degradation, to maximize economic and environmental benefits of PFAS remedial measures.