Analysis of 58 poly-/perfluoroalkyl substances and their occurrence in surface water in a high-technology industrial park

By Pingping Zheng, Min Liu, Haowen Yin, Lu Shen, Yingzhi Wang, and Qiang Wu
Env. Poll.
September 1, 2020
DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115381

Poly/perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have some water solubility so that they are more liable to enter surface water. A comprehensive analysis method was established to analyze 17 classes of 58 PFASs in surface water by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) after automated solid phase extraction (SPE). The method showed acceptable recoveries and precision with recoveries of 60%-130% and RSD less than 30% with a few exceptions, and method detection limits (MDLs) of 0.004 ng/L-2.0 ng/L. It was investigated the surface water around Zhangjiang High-Technology Park in Shanghai. The concentration of ∑PFASs ranged from 115 ng/L to 600 ng/L. The main pollutant was perfluoro-3-methylheptanoic acid (P3MHpA), which is isopropyl isomer of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), accounting 41.6% of ∑PFASs. It was detected in all samples and its level was far higher than that of PFOA with the maximum of 432 ng/L determined surrounding integrated circuits company. Short-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and PFOA were also major constituents accounting for 39.9% of ∑PFASs. Perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSAs (C4, 6, 8)) were detected in all samples, while most concentrations were below 10 ng/L. In addition, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctane sulfonate (6:2) (6:2 FTS), 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2-(1,1,2,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropoxy)-propanoic acid (HFPO-DA) and 9-chlorohexadecafluoro-3-oxanonane-sulfonate (9Cl-PF3ONS) were also detected in all samples at low level. Long chain PFCAs and PFSAs and other classes of PFASs were also detected with low levels and/or low frequencies. The level of PFASs shows an increasing trend in surface water in Shanghai. The whole risk is low for residents from water exposure, while it should cautious to the emission of P3MHpA from integrated circuits and its potential risk.

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