Contamination profiles and risk assessment of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in groundwater in China

By Xiaocui Qiao, Lixin Jiao, Xiaoxia Zhang, Xue Li, Shuran Hao, Minghao Kong, and Yan Liu
Environ. Monit. Assess.
January 7, 2020
DOI: 10.1007/s10661-019-8005-z

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have attracted attention due to the potential risk they pose to ecosystems and human health. A total of 169 groundwater samples were collected from four representative regions in order to analyze PFASs concentrations in China. The total concentration of PFASs (∑PFASs) in groundwater ranged from 0.05 to 198.80 ng L, with an average of 3.97 ng L. All targeted PFASs were detected in the studied areas. The detection frequency and average concentration of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were the highest (79.29% and 1.61 ng L, respectively). The contamination profiles of PFASs in each study area varied due to natural geographical conditions and human activities. According to the results of the potential source identification, the point sources of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were mainly concentrated in Lanzhou, and the distribution of PFASs was slightly affected by atmospheric deposition in all the studied areas. The obtained concentrations of PFOA and PFOS may pose no threat to the residents due to water consumption.

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