Food Safety Concerns: Crop Breeding as a Potential Strategy to Address Issues Associated with the Recently Lowered Reference Doses for Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctane sulfonate
By Lei Xiang, Yan-Wen Li, Peng-Fei Yu, Nai-Xian Feng, Hai-Ming Zhao, Hui Li, Quan-Ying Cai, Ce-Hui Mo, and Qing X. Li
J Agric Food Chem.
December 26, 2019
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are perfluorinated alkyl substances widely used in industrial and domestic products. The European Food Safety Authority and U.S. EPA have recently lowered the reference doses (RfDs) for PFOA and PFOS 4~1800-fold. The recently lowered RfDs call for re-evaluation of potential human health risks from PFOA and PFOS via food consumption. Serious concerns arise because some intakes of PFOA and PFOS exceeded the RfDs. Innovative cultivation of low-accumulating crop varieties becomes an option to decrease human exposure. We present an up-to-date review on low-accumulating crop varieties for PFOA and PFOS, in reference to toxic metals and other organic pollutants, including the variety identification, physiological-biochemical mechanisms, and molecular uptake mechanisms and molecular docking. It is to call for attention and research efforts to decrease human intakes of PFOA and PFOS via crop consumption.