Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances and their alternatives in black-tailed gull (Larus crassirostris) eggs from South Korea islands during 2012-2018
By Wenting Wang, Jangho Lee, Jung-Keun Oh, Sang-Jin Lee, Sung-Deuk Choi, and Jeong-Eun Oh
J Hazard Mater
January 6, 2021
The temporal and spatial trends of sixteen per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and their three alternatives, chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonic acid (F-53B), hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (GenX), and dodecafluoro-3H-4,8-dioxanonanoate (ADONA) in whole eggs of black-tailed gulls from two South Korean islands, Baengnyeongdo (BLD) and Hongdo (HD), were investigated during 2012-2018. A total of 16 analyzed compounds were detected at concentrations of 21.3-47.8 ng/g ww in BLD and 11.2-40.0 ng/g ww in HD. Meanwhile, the mean levels of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were detected at 6.92 ± 4.72 ng/g ww and 0.674 ± 0.993 ng/g ww, respectively. In particular, F-53B, a major alternative to PFOS was detected in each year of the study period with a level of up to 6.66 ng/g ww in all egg samples. Significant increasing temporal trends were observed for PFOS, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and one alternative (F-53B) during the investigated period suggesting continuous use or accumulation of these in the Korean environment. Moreover, distinctive spatial distribution patterns such as a significantly higher F-53B level in HD and an increased PFAS (< C11) in BLD were also observed.