Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in surface water, gas and particle in open ocean and coastal environment
By Yamazaki, Eriko, Sachi Taniyasu, Xinhong Wang, and Nobuyoshi Yamashita
February 9, 2021
A simultaneous sampling of atmospheric and seawater samples was performed in the the Taiwan Western Strait, western Arctic Ocean, and the Antarctic Ocean. Analysis of both particle and gas phase PFAS in oceanic air was conducted using cascade impactor particle fractionator, cryogenic air sampler and activated charcoal fiber sorbent for the first time with application in the Taiwan Western Strait. Mean concentration of Σ12PFAS in surface seawater and atmospheric samples were 1178 pg/L and 24 pg/m3 in the Taiwan Western Strait, 430 pg/L and 6 pg/m3 in the western Arctic Ocean, and 456 pg/L and 3 pg/m3 in the Antarctic Ocean. In oceanic air from the Taiwan Western Strait, fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) and the ionic PFAS [perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid (PFSA) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA)] were found in 76% and 7% respectively. Regional comparison of air/water exchange (KAW) and gas-particle (Kp) partition coefficients of PFAS in the oceanic environment indicated potential partitioning of ionic PFAS between surface seawater and oceanic air. These findings highlight the advancement in atmospheric PFAS measurements through combined novel technologies, namely size-fractionated particle sampling with cryogenic air trapping and/or activated charcoal sorption. Correlation between Kp and carbon chain length of PFAS was observed using both hyphenated techniques.
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