Perfluoroalkyl substance excretion: Effects of organic anion-inhibiting and resin-binding drugs in a community setting

By Alan Ducatman, Michael Luster, and Tony Fletcher
Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
April 6, 2021
DOI: 10.1016/j.etap.2021.103650


Longer serum half-lives of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in humans compared to other species has been attributed to differences in the activity of organic anion transporters (OAT).


Among 56,175 adult participants in the community-based C8 Health Project, 23 subjects were taking the uricosuric OAT-inhibitor probenecid, and 36 subjects were taking the bile acid sequestrant cholestyramine. In regression models of log transformed serum PFAS, medication effects were estimated in terms of mean ratios, adjusting for age, gender, BMI, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and water-district of residence.


Probenecid was associated with modest, but not statistically significant increases in serum PFAS concentrations. In contrast, cholestyramine significantly lowered serum PFAS concentrations, notably for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS).


The effectiveness of cholestyramine in a community setting supports the importance of gastrointestinal physiology for PFAS excretion kinetics, especially for PFOS. We did not find clear evidence that probenecid, an inhibitor of OAT, affects PFAS clearance.


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