Perfluoroalkyl substances in the Lingang hybrid constructed wetland, Tianjin, China: occurrence, distribution characteristics, and ecological risks
By Ziang Chen, Gengbo Ren, Xiaodong Ma, Ye Ding, Yunmin Hui, Pingping Qin, Zhuoqi Xu, Xiujun Gu, Fang Yuan, and Yanhai Liu
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
July 5, 2020
In this study, the occurrence, spatial distribution, sources, and ecological risks of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the surface waters of the Lingang hybrid constructed wetland were systematically investigated. Twenty-three PFASs were analyzed from 7 representative sampling zones. The obtained results indicated that PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFBS, PFOS, and HFPO-DA were frequently detected; and PFBA, PFOA, and PFOS were the dominant PFASs with the relative abundances in ranges of 26.91 to 52.26%, 11.79 to 28.79%, and 0 to 31.98%, respectively. The total concentrations of 8 PFASs (ΣPFASs) ranged from 25.9 to 56.6 ng/L, and the highest concentration was observed in subsurface flow wetland. Moreover, HFPO-DA with high toxicity was detected in wetlands for the first time. Based on the principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) analysis, three sources and their contributions were fluoropolymer processing aids (67.6%), fluororesin coatings and metal plating (17.9%), and food packaging materials and atmospheric precipitation (14.5%), respectively. According to the risk quotients (RQs), the ecological risk of 8 PFASs was low to the aquatic organisms.