Perfluorocarbon-based oxygen carriers: from physics to physiology

By Johannes J├Ągers, Anna Wrobeln & Katja B. Ferenz
Europ. J of Phy
November 17, 2020
DOI: 10.1007/s00424-020-02482-2

Developing biocompatible, synthetic oxygen carriers is a consistently challenging task that researchers have been pursuing for decades. Perfluorocarbons (PFC) are fascinating compounds with a huge capacity to dissolve gases, where the respiratory gases are of special interest for current investigations. Although largely chemically and biologically inert, pure PFCs are not suitable for injection into the vascular system. Extensive research created stable PFC nano-emulsions that avoid (i) fast clearance from the blood and (ii) long organ retention time, which leads to undesired transient side effects. PFC-based oxygen carriers (PFOCs) show a variety of application fields, which are worthwhile to investigate. To understand the difficulties that challenge researchers in creating formulations for clinical applications, this review provides the physical background of PFCs’ properties and then illuminates the reasons for instabilities of PFC emulsions. By linking the unique properties of PFCs and PFOCs to physiology, it elaborates on the response, processing and dysregulation, which the body experiences through intravascular PFOCs. Thereby the reader will receive a scientific and easily comprehensible overview why PFOCs are precious tools for so many diverse application areas from cancer therapeutics to blood substitutes up to organ preservation and diving disease.

 

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