Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals and the risk of kidney stones in US adults: A population-based study
By Weipu Mao, Qiang Hu, Saisai Chen, Yu Chen, Ming Luo, Ziwei Zhang, Jiang Geng, Jianping Wu, Bin Xu, and Ming Chen
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf
October 27, 2020
The potential nephrotoxicity of polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have received extensive attention. However, the relationship between PFCs and the risk of kidney stones remain unclear. This study aimed to examine the level of PFCs in the US population and its relationship with the risk of kidney stones. We investigated the serum levels of six PFCs in 8453 adult participants (≥20 years) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) between 2007 and 2016, including perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDE), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHS), 2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetate (MPAH), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDO). Logistic regression model was used to evaluate the correlation between PFCs and kidney stones. Of the 8453 participants, 787 self-reported a history of kidney stones. After adjusting for gender, age, race, education, marital status, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, diabetes and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), we found that total PFCs and PFHS were positively correlated with the risk of kidney stones. Compared with the lowest tertile, the odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) with increasing tertiles were 1.30 (95% CI,1.08-1.59, p = 0.007) and 1.25 (95 CI%,1.00-1.52, p = 0.024) for total PFCs and 1.24 (95 CI%,1.03-1.51, p = 0.032), and 1.35 (95 CI,1.10-1.68, p = 0.005) for PFHS. Our study shows that total PFCs and PFHS were associated with an increased risk of kidney stones.