Serum Perfluoroalkyl Substances, Vaccine Responses, and Morbidity in a Cohort of Guinea-Bissau Children
By Clara Amalie Gade Timmermann, Kristoffer Jarlov Jensen, Flemming Nielsen, Esben Budtz-Jørgensen, Fiona van der Klis, Christine Stabell Benn, Philippe Grandjean, and Ane Bærent Fisker
Environ. Health Perspect.
August 17, 2020
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a group of widely used persistent chemicals with suspected immunotoxic effects.
The present study aimed to examine the association between infant PFAS exposure and antibody responses to measles vaccination as well as morbidity in a low-income country.
In a randomized controlled trial, children from Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, were followed from inclusion (4-7 months of age) through 2 years of age. Half the children received two measles vaccinations (at inclusion and at 9 months of age), and the other half received only one (at 9 months of age). In a subset of 237 children, six PFAS were quantified in serum at inclusion, and measles antibody concentrations were assessed at inclusion and at approximately 9 months and 2 years of age. At inclusion and at the 9-month visit, mothers were interviewed about infant morbidity.
All but one child had detectable serum concentrations of all six PFAS, although levels were lower than seen elsewhere. A doubling in perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) were associated with 21% (95% CI: 2, 37%) and 25% (95% CI: 1, 43%), respectively, lower measles antibody concentrations at the 9-month visit among the children who had received a measles vaccine at inclusion. Elevated serum PFAS concentrations were also associated with reduced prevaccination measles antibody concentrations and increased morbidity.
The present study documents that PFAS exposure has reached West Africa and that infants show PFAS-associated increases in morbidity and decreases in measles-specific antibody concentrations before and after vaccination. These findings support the evidence on PFAS immunotoxicity at comparatively low serum concentrations. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6517.