Urine concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids in children and contributions of dietary factors: a cross-sectional study from Shanghai, China
By Juan Li, Jiafan Li, Yuning Ma, Bo Chen, Xirui Wang, Xianting Jiao, Yihui Jin, Zhemin Shen, Tao Yuan, and Xiaodan Yu
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
January 12, 2021
The production and emission of short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) has increased over the years to replace long-chain PFAAs, leading to frequent detection in the environment and raising global concerns about the potential impacts on human health. In this study, the specific urine levels of 10 PFAAs were obtained from 189 children (age 8-12 years) from two primary schools located in urban and suburban areas of Shanghai in 2019, and the contributions of dietary factors were investigated. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) were detected in 100%, 99.5%, and 87.3% of the samples, with median concentrations of 20.20 ng/L, 46.50 ng/L, and 20.95 ng/L, respectively. The most abundant PFAA was perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), with a median concentration of 78.90 ng/L. The concentration of ∑PFAAs ranged from 61.10 to 4108.93 ng/L, with a median concentration of 253.12 ng/L. Children aged 8-9 years had higher median levels of PFBS, perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) than children aged 10-12 years. Obese/overweight children had lower levels of PFHpA, PFBS, and PFOS. The intake of red meats, tubers, sugared beverages, fish and seafood, and eggs contributed to higher concentrations of PFAAs, while frequent intake of poultry and soy milk was associated with lower PFAA concentrations.