Association between perfluoroalkyl acids and the prevalence of hypertension among US adults
By Shengen Liao, Wenming Yao, Iokfai Cheang, Xiaosu Tang, Ting Yin, Xinyi Lu, Yanli Zhou, Haifeng Zhang, and Xinli Li
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
April 14, 2020
The nonlinear associations of serum perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) with hypertension and blood pressure have not been addressed. Cross-sectional data from 6967 adults (age ≥ 20 years) from the 2003-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed. Hypertension was defined as an average systolic blood pressure above 140 mmHg, an average diastolic blood pressure above 90 mmHg or self-reported use of prescribed medicine for diagnosed hypertension. After multivariable adjustment, compared with the lowest tertile, the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of hypertension for the highest tertile of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were 1.32 (1.13, 1.54), 1.14 (0.97, 1.34), 1.16 (0.99, 1.36) and 1.18 (1.01, 1.37), respectively. PFOA and PFNA displayed a J-shaped relationship with the prevalence of hypertension. Furthermore, threshold effect analysis showed that the inflection point of PFOA was 1.80 ng/ml. Each 10-fold change in PFOA exhibited a 44% decrease (OR 0.56, 95%CI (0.32, 0.99)) in the odds of hypertension on the left side of the inflection point, and an 85% increase (OR 1.85, 95%CI (1.34, 2.54)) on the right side of the inflection point. Threshold effect analysis also indicated that the inflection point of PFNA was 0.53 ng/ml. Each 10-fold change in PFNA exhibited a 60% decrease (OR 0.40, 95%CI (0.18, 0.85)) in the odds of hypertension on the left side of the inflection point, and an 85% increase (OR 1.64, 95%CI (1.25, 2.14)) on the right side of the inflection point. These cross-sectional data showed a J-shaped association between perfluoroalkyl acids and hypertension.