Emerging and Legacy Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in House Dust from South China: Contamination Status and Human Exposure Assessment.
By Fangping Xu, Da Chen, Xiaotu Liu, Qingxia Guan, Hongli Tan, Daming Zhou, Yumeng Shi, Jia Liu, and Yongxia Hu
October 6, 2020
Our study investigated a large variety of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in house dust collected from Guangzhou, South China during 2015-2018. The perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) exhibited the highest median concentration (17.6 ng/g), followed by linear perfluorooctanoic acid (L-PFOA; 4.8 ng/g), linear perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (L-PFOS; 4.2 ng/g), 6:2 fluorotelomer phosphate diester (6:2 diPAP; 3.4 ng/g), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA; 1.2 ng/g) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUdA; 1.2 ng/g), and 6:2 chlorinated perfluoroalkyl ether sulfonic acid (6:2 Cl-PFESA; 1.1 ng/g). Total concentrations of PFASs (median: 53 ng/g) were generally within the 25-50 percentile of the concentration range reported in global studies. However, our samples exhibited composition profiles different from those reported in many other regions. Analysis based on this and previous studies revealed that the compositions in house dust from East Asia, North America, and Europe exhibit a region-specific pattern. This may indicate region-specific market demands, application patterns, as well as associated human exposure risks. Exploration of dwelling characterizations suggested that renovation history appeared to be a significant factor influencing PFAS concentrations in house dust, although other factors may exist and play a role. Estimation of daily intakes via dust ingestion and dermal contact indicates low exposure risks from these two pathways. However, the PFAS chemical-specific biological effects, possible mixture effects, as well as additional exposure pathways, imply that the risk from indoor PFAS exposure should not be overlooked.