Photochemical decomposition of perfluorochemicals in contaminated water
By Xiaoqing Liu, Wei Wei, Juan Xu, Dongbo Wang, Lan Song, Bing-Jie Ni
September 1, 2020
Perfluorochemicals (PFCs) are a set of chemicals containing C-F bonds, which are concerned due to their bioaccumulation property, persistent and toxicological properties. Photocatalytic approaches have been widely studied for the effective removal of PFCs due to the mild operation conditions. This review aims to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date summary on the homogenous and heterogeneous photocatalytic processes for PFCs removal. Specifically, the homogenous photocatalytic methods for remediating PFCs are firstly discussed, including generation of hydrated electrons (eaq‒) and its performance and mechanisms for photo-reductive destruction of PFCs, the active species responsible for photo-oxidative degradation of PFCs and the corresponding mechanisms, and metal-ion-mediated (Fe(III) mainly used) processes for the remediation of PFCs. The influences of molecular structures of PFCs and water matrix, such as dissolved oxygen, humic acid, nitrate, chloride on the homogenous photocatalytic degradation of PFCs are also discussed. For heterogeneous photocatalytic processes, various semiconductor photocatalysts used for the decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are then discussed in terms of their specific properties benefiting photocatalytic performances. The preparation methods for optimizing the performance of photocatalysts are also overviewed. Moreover, the photo-oxidative and photo-reductive pathways are summarized for remediating PFOA in the presences of different semiconductor photocatalysts, including active species responsible for the degradation. We finally put forward several key perspectives for the photocatalytic removal of PFCs to promote its practical application in PFCs-containing wastewater treatment, including the treatment of PFCs degradation products such as fluoride ion, and the development of noble-metal free photocatalysts that could efficiently remove PFCs under solar light irradiation.