Relationships between maternal perfluoroalkyl substance levels, polymorphisms of receptor genes, and adverse birth outcomes in the Hokkaido birth cohort study, Japan
By Sumitaka Kobayashi, Fumihiro Sata, Atsuko Ikeda-Araki, Chihiro Miyashita, Goudarzi Houman, Yusuke Iwasaki, Tamie Nakajima, and Reiko Kishi
December 20, 2021
We assessed the associations between perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) levels in third trimester maternal serum, the maternal genotypes of genes encoding nuclear receptors, and birth outcomes. We studied a prospective birth cohort of healthy pregnant Japanese women (n = 372) recruited in Sapporo between July 2002 and October 2005. We analyzed PFOS and PFOA levels using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and analyzed 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of proliferator-activated receptor alpha, gamma, gamma coactivator 1A, delta, constitutive androstane receptor, liver X receptor alpha, and beta (LXRB) using real-time polymerase reaction (PCR). We employed multiple linear regression models to establish the influences of log-transformed PFOS and PFOA levels and maternal genotypes on birth size. In female infants, we identified interactions between PFOS levels, the maternal genotype of LXRB (rs1405655), and birth weight. The estimated mean changes in birth weight in response to PFOS levels, the maternal genotype LXRB (rs1405655)-TC/CC (compared to TT), and their interactions were -502.9 g (95% confidence interval [CI] = -247.3, -758.5 g), -526.3 g (95% CI = -200.7, -852.0 g), and 662.1 g (95% CI = 221.0, 1,103.2 g; p = 0.003), respectively. Interactions between PFOS levels and the maternal genotype of LXRB (rs1405655) also significantly affected birth chest circumference and the Ponderal index (p = 0.037 and 0.005, respectively). Thus, interactions between PFOS levels and the maternal genotype of LXRB (rs1405655) affects birth sizes in female infants. We found that certain SNPs modify the effects of PFOS levels on birth size.