Understanding the Impact of Perfluorinated Compounds on Cardiovascular Diseases and Their Risk Factors: A Meta-Analysis Study
By Siti Suhana Abdullah Soheimi, Amirah Abdul Rahman, Normala Abd Latip, Effendi Ibrahim, and Siti Hamimah Sheikh Abdul Kadir
Int J Environ Res Public Health
August 31, 2021
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are non-biodegradable synthetic chemical compounds that are widely used in manufacturing many household products. Many studies have reported the association between PFCs exposure with the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, those reports are still debatable, due to their findings. Thus, this review paper aimed to analyse the association of PFCs compound with CVDs and their risk factors in humans by systematic review and meta-analysis. Google Scholar, PubMed and ScienceDirect were searched for PFCs studies on CVDs and their risk from 2009 until present. The association of PFCs exposure with the prevalence of CVDs and their risk factors were assessed by calculating the quality criteria, odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). CVDs risk factors were divided into serum lipid profile (main risk factor) and other known risk factors. The meta-analysis was then used to derive a combined OR test for heterogeneity in findings between studies. Twenty-nine articles were included. Our meta-analysis indicated that PFCs exposure could be associated with CVDs (Test for overall effect: z = 2.2, = 0.02; Test for heterogeneity: = 91.6%, CI = 0.92-1.58, < 0.0001) and their risk factors (Test for overall effect: z = 4.03, < 0.0001; Test for heterogeneity: = 85.8%, CI = 1.00-1.14, < 0.0001). In serum lipids, total cholesterol levels are frequently reported associated with the exposure of PFCs. Among PFCs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) exposure increased the risk of CVDs than other types of PFCs. Although the risk of PFOA and PFOS were positively associated with CVDs and their risk factors, more observational studies shall be carried out to identify the long-term effects of these contaminants in premature CVDs development in patients.